65) Philipp Seitz, Manik Bhosale, Luisa Rzesny, Anselm Uhlmann, Jan S. Wössner, Robin Wessling, Birgit Esser*

"Conjugated Nanohoop Polymers based on Antiaromatic Dibenzopentalenes for Charge Storage in Organic Batteries"

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., accepted. DOI: 10.1002/anie.202306184

64) Bowen Ding, Manik Bhosale, Troy L. R. Bennett, Martin Heeney, Felix Plasser, Birgit Esser,* Florian Glöcklhofer*

"Reducing Undesired Solubility of Squarephaneic Tetraimide for Use as an Organic Battery Electrode Material"

Faraday Discussions, accepted.

63) Matthias Uhl, Sadeeda, Philipp Penert, Philipp A. Schuster, Benjamin W. Schick, Simon Muench, Attila Farkas, Ulrich S. Schubert, Birgit Esser, Alexander J. C. Kuehne, Timo Jacob*

"All-Organic Battery Based on Deep Eutectic Solvent and Redox-Active Polymers"

ChemSusChem 2023, e202301057. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202301057.

62) Gauthier Studer, Alexei Schmidt, Jan Büttner, Maximilian Schmidt, Anna Fischer, Ingo Krossing,* Birgit Esser*

"On a high-capacity aluminium battery with a two-electron phenothiazine redox polymer as positive electrode"

Energy Environ. Sci. 2023, accepted article,  DOI: 10.1039/D3EE00235G.

61) Alia Jouhara, Luisa Rzesny, Valentin Rialland, Camille Latouche, Philippe Poizot*, Birgit Esser*

"Fusing thiadiazol and terephthalate: A concept to promote the electrochemical performance of conjugated dicarboxylates"

ChemSusChem 2023, 16, e202300286. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202300286.

60) Mathias Hermann, David C. Grenz, Birgit Esser*

"Engineering the packing structure of thioether- and sulfone-substituted dibenzo[a,e]pentalenes by pentafluorophenyl substitution"

J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2023, 36, e4491. DOI: 10.1002/poc.4491.

59) Josefine Sprachmann, Tommy Wachsmuth, Manik Bhosale, David Burmeister, Glen J. Smales, Maximilian Schmidt, Zdravko Kochovski, Niklas Grabicki, Robin Wessling, Birgit Esser,* Oliver Dumele*

"Antiaromatic Covalent Organic Frameworks Based on Dibenzopentalenes"

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2023, 145, 2840–2851. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c10501.

58) Gauthier Desmaizieres, Verena Perner, Daniel Wassy, Martin Kolek, Peter Bieker,* Martin Winter, Birgit Esser*

"Evaluating the polymer backbone – vinylene versus styrene – of anisyl-substituted phenothiazines as battery electrode materials"

Batteries & Supercaps 2022, 6, e202200464. DOI: 10.1002/batt.202200464

57) Bärbel Tengen, Timo Winkelmann, Niklas Ortlieb, Verena Perner, Gauthier Studer, Martin Winter, Birgit Esser,* Anna Fischer,* Peter Bieker*

"Immobilizing Poly(vinylphenothiazine) in Ketjenblack-based Electrodes to Access its Full Specific Capacity as Battery Electrode Material"

Adv. Funct. Mater. 2023, 33, 2210512; DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202210512.

56) Robin Wessling, Rodrigo Delgado Andres, Isabel Morhenn, Pascal Acker, Wafa Maftuhin, Michael Walter,* Uli Würfel,* Birgit Esser*

"Phenothiazine-based donor-acceptor polymers as multifunctional materials for charge storage and solar energy conversion"

Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2022, 2200699. DOI: 10.1002/marc.202200699

55) Alexei Schmidt, Hendrik Koger, Antoine Barthélemy, Gauthier Studer, Birgit Esser, Ingo Krossing*

"Is One of the Least Coordinating Anions Suitable to Serve as Electrolyte Salt for Magnesium Ion Batteries?"

Batteries & Supercaps 2022, e202200340. DOI: 10.1002/batt.202200340

54) Pascal Acker, Jan S Wössner, Gauthier Desmaizieres, and Birgit Esser*

"Conjugated Copolymer Design in Phenothiazine-Based Battery Materials Enables High Mass Loading Electrodes"

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 202210, 3236–3244. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.1c07564

53)  Jan S. Wössner, Julia Kohn, Daniel Wassy, Mathias Hermann, Stefan Grimme, and Birgit Esser*

"Increased Antiaromaticity through Pentalene Connection in [n]Cyclo-1,5-dibenzopentalenes"

Org. Lett. 2022, 24, 983–988. DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.1c03900

52) Birgit Esser,* Jan S Wössner, Mathias Hermann

"Conjugated Nanohoops with Dibenzo[a,e]pentalenes as Non-alternant and Antiaromatic π-Systems"

Synlett 2022, 33, 737–753 DOI: 10.1055/a-1740-7139

51) David C. Grenz, Daniel Rose, Jan S. Wössner, Jennifer Wilbuer, Florin Adler, Mathias Hermann, Chin-Yiu Chan,
Chihaya Adachi, Birgit Esser*
"Spiroconjugated Tetraaminospirenes as Donors in Color-tunable Charge-transfer Emitters with Donor-acceptor Structure"

Chem. Eur. J. 202128, e202104150. DOI: 10.1002/chem.202104150

50) M. Schmidt, B. Esser*
"Cavity-promotion by pillar[5]arenes expedites organic photoredox-catalysed reductive dehalogenations"
Chem. Commun. 2021, 57, 9582–9585. DOI: 10.1039/D1CC03221F

49) J. S. Wössner, D. Wassy, A. Weber, M. Bovenkerk, M. Hermann, M. Schmidt, B. Esser*
"[n]Cyclodibenzopentalenes as Antiaromatic Curved Nanocarbons with High Strain and Strong Fullerene Binding"
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 12244–12252. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.1c05251

48) F. Otteny, V. Perner, C. Einholz, G. Desmaizieres, E. Schleicher, M. Kolek,* P. Bieker, M. Winter, B. Esser*
"Bridging the Gap between Small Molecular π-Interactions and their Effect on Phenothiazine-Based Redox Polymers in Organic Batteries"
ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2021, 4, 7622–7631. DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.1c00917

47) D. Wassy, M. Hermann, J. S. Wössner, L. Frédéric, G. Pieters, B. Esser*
"Enantiopure nanohoops through racemic resolution of diketo[n]CPPs by chiral derivatization as precursors to DBP[n]CPPs"
Chem. Sci. 2021, 12, 10150–10158. DOI: 10.1039/D1SC02718B (part of the Themed Collection "2021 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection")

46) V. Perner, D. Diddens, F. Otteny, V. Küpers, P. Bieker, B. Esser,* M. Winter, M. Kolek*
"Insights into the solubility of poly(vinylphenothiazine) in carbonate-based battery electrolytes"
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 12442–12453. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c20012

45) M. Hermann, D. Wassy, B. Esser*
"Conjugated Nanohoops Incorporating Donor‐, Acceptor‐, Hetero‐ or Polycyclic Aromatics"
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2021, 60, 15743–15766. DOI: 10.1002/anie.202007024

44) B. Esser, M. Hermann
"Buckling up zigzag nanobelts"
Nat. Chem. 2021, 13, 209–211. DOI: 10.1038/s41557-021-00642-0

43) M. Hermann, D. Wassy, J. Kohn, P. Seitz, M. U. Betschart, S. Grimme, B. Esser*
"Chiral Dibenzopentalene-based Conjugated Nanohoops through Stereoselective Synthesis"
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2021, 60, 10680–10689. DOI: 10.1002/anie.202016968

42) G. Desmaizieres, M. E. Speer, I. Thiede, P. Gaiser, V. Perner, M. Kolek,* P. Bieker, M. Winter, B. Esser*
"Dibenzo[a,e]cyclooctatetraene-functionalized polymers as potential battery electrode materials"
Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2021, 2000725, DOI: 10.1002/marc.202000725

41) M. Hermann, T. Böttcher, M. Schorpp, S. Richert, D. Wassy, I. Krossing, B. Esser*
"Cations and Anions of Dibenzo[a,e]pentalene and Reduction of a Dibenzo[a,e]pentalenophane"
Chem. Eur. J. 2021, 17, 4964–4970. DOI: 10.1002/chem.202005131

40) Y. Ikari, T. Kaihara, S. Goto, M. Bovenkerk, D. C. Grenz, B. Esser*, M. Ferreira, P. Stachelek, P. Data*, T. Yoshida, T. Ikai, N. Tohnai, S. Minakata, Y. Takeda*
"Peripherally Donor-Installed 7,8-Diaza[5]helicenes as a Platform for Helical Luminophores"
Synthesis 2021, 53, 1584–1596. DOI: 10.1055/a-1343-5810

39) M. Schmidt, D. Wassy, M. Hermann, M. T. González, N. Agräit, L. A. Zotti,* B. Esser,* E. Leary*
"Single-Molecule Conductance of Dibenzopentalenes: Antiaromaticity and Quantum Interference"
Chem. Commun. 2021, 57, 745–748. DOI: 10.1039/D0CC06810A

38) B. Esser*, F. Dolhem, M. Becuwe, P. Poizot, A. Vlad, D. Brandell*
"A perspective on organic electrode materials and technologies for next generation batteries"
J. Power Sources. 2021, 482, 228814. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228814

37) J. Ma, A. Ripp, D. Wassy, T. Dürr, D. Qiu, M. Häner, T. M. Haas, C. Popp, D. Bezold, S. Richert, B. Esser, H. J. Jessen*
"Thiocoumarin Caged Nucleotides: Synthetic Access and Their Photophysical Properties"
Molecules 2020, 25, 5325. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25225325

36) M. D. Hager, B. Esser, X. Feng, W. Schuhmann, P. Theato, U. S. Schubert*
"Polymer‐Based Batteries—Flexible and Thin Energy Storage Systems"
Adv. Mater. 2020, 32, 2000587. DOI: 10.1002/adma.202000587

35) M. Schmidt, M. Hermann, F. Otteny, B. Esser*
"Calix[n]phenothiazines: Optoelectronic and Structural Properties and Host–Guest Chemistry"
Org. Mater. 2020, 2, 235-239. DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1714295

34) P. Acker, M. E. Speer, J. S. Wössner, B. Esser*
"Azine-based polymers with a two-electron redox process as cathode materials for organic batteries"
J. Mater. Chem. A 2020, 8, 11195–11201. DOI: 10.1039/D0TA04083E

33) J. S. Wössner, B. Esser*
"Spiroconjugated Donor−σ−Acceptor Charge-Transfer Dyes: Effect of the π-Subsystems on the Optoelectronic Properties"
J. Org. Chem. 2020, 85, 5048–5057. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.0c00567

32) D. Wassy, M. Pfeifer, B. Esser*
"Synthesis and Properties of Conjugated Nanohoops Incorporating Dibenzo[a,e]pentalenes: [2]DBP[12]CPPs"
J.Org. Chem. 2020, 85, 34–43. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.9b01195
(Highlighted in SYNFACTS as "SYNFACT of the Month": "Synthesis of Conjugated Nanohoops Containing Antiaromatic Units," Synfacts 2019, 15, 1121).

31) F. Otteny, G. Studer, M. Kolek*, P. Bieker, M. Winter, B. Esser*
"Phenothiazine‐functionalized poly(norbornene)s as high‐rate cathode‐materials for organic batteries "
ChemSusChem 2020, 13, 2232–2238. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201903168

30) F. Otteny, V. Perner, D. Wassy, M. Kolek*, P. Bieker, M. Winter, B. Esser*
"Poly(vinylphenoxazine) as Fast-Charging Cathode Material for Organic Batteries "
ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2020, 8, 238–247. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b05253

29) B. Esser
"Redox polymers as electrode-active materials for batteries"
Org. Mater. 2019, 1, 63–70. DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3401016

28) J. S. Wössner D. C. Grenz, D. Kratzert, B. Esser*
"Tuning the optical properties of spiro-centered charge-transfer dyes by extending the donor or acceptor part"
Org. Chem. Front. 2019, 6, 36493656. DOI: 10.1039/C9QO01134J

27) P. Acker, L. Rzesny, C. F. N. Marchiori, C. M. Araujo, B. Esser*
"π-Conjugation Enables Ultra-High Rate Capabilities and Cycling Stabilities in Phenothiazine Co-Polymers as Cathode-Active Battery Materials"
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2019, 29, 1906436 DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201906436

26) R. Hahn, F. Bohle, W. Fang, A. Walther, S. Grimme, B. Esser*
"Raising the Bar in Aromatic Donor-Acceptor Interactions with Cyclic Trinuclear Gold(I) Complexes as Strong π-Donors"
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 17932–17944. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b08823

25) F. Otteny, M. Kolek, J. Becking, M. Winter, P. Bieker,* B. Esser*
"Unlocking Full Discharge Capacities of Poly(vinylphenothiazine) as Battery Cathode Material by Decreasing Polymer Mobility Through Cross‐Linking"
Adv. Energy Mater. 2018, 8, 1802151. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201802151

24) M. Kolek, F. Otteny, J. Becking, M. Winter, B. Esser,* P. Bieker*
"Mechanism of Charge/Discharge of Poly(vinylphenothiazine)-Based Li-Organic Batteries"
Chem. Mater. 2018, 30, 6307–6317. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b02015

23) M. Hermann, R. Wu, D. C. Grenz, D. Kratzert, H. Li,* B. Esser*
"Thioether- and sulfone-functionalized dibenzopentalenes as n‑channel semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors"
J. Mater. Chem. C 2018, 6, 5420–5426. DOI: 10.1039/C8TC00970H

22) M. Hermann, D. Wassy, D. Kratzert, B. Esser*
"Dibenzo[a,e]pentalenophanes – Bending a Non-Alternant Hydrocarbon"
Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 7374–7387 (Hot Paper). DOI: 10.1002/chem.201800322

21) R. Hahn, F. Bohle, S. Kotte, T. J. Keller, S.-S. Jester, A. Hansen, S. Grimme, B. Esser*
"Donor-acceptor interactions between cyclic trinuclear pyridinate gold(I)-complexes and electron-poor guests: Nature and energetics of guest-binding and templating on graphite"
Chem. Sci. 2018, 9, 3477–3483, DOI: 10.1039/C7SC05355J

20) D. C. Grenz, M. Schmidt, D. Kratzert, B. Esser*
"Dibenzo[a,e]pentalenes with Low-Lying LUMO Energy Levels as Potential n-Type Materials"
J. Org. Chem. 2018, 83, 656–663, DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.7b02250

19) M. E. Speer, C. Sterzenbach, B. Esser*
"Evaluation of cyclooctatetraene-based aliphatic polymers as battery materials: Synthesis, electrochemical and thermal characterization, supported by DFT-calculations"
ChemPlusChem 2017, 82, 1274–1281,  DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201700356

18) M. Kolek, F. Otteny, P. Schmidt, C. Mück-Lichtenfeld, C. Einholz, J. Becking, E. Schleicher, M. Winter, P. M. Bieker*, B. Esser*
"Ultra-high cycling stability of poly(vinylphenothiazine) as battery cathode material resulting from π-π interactions"
Energy Environ. Sci. 2017, 10, 2334–2341, DOI: 10.1039/C7EE01473B
(Highlighted in Nature 2017, 549, 339–340).

17) J. Wilbuer, D. C. Grenz, G. Schnakenburg, B. Esser*
"Donor- and acceptor-functionalized dibenzo[a,e]pentalenes: Modulation of the electronic band gap"
Org. Chem. Front. 2017, 4, 658-663. DOI: 10.1039/C6QO00487C

16) J. Wilbuer, G. Schnakenburg, B. Esser*
"Syntheses, Structures and Optoelectronic Properties of Spiroconjugated Cyclic Ketones"
Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 2404-2412. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600235

15) M. E. Speer, M. Kolek, J. J. Jassoy, J. Heine, M. Winter, P. M. Bieker, B. Esser*
"Thianthrene-functionalized polynorbornenes as high-voltage materials for organic cathode-based dual-ion batteries"
Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 15261-15264. DOI: 10.1039/C5CC04932F

14) S. Seiffert, B. Esser, J. Thiele
"Trendberichte Makromolekulare Chemie"
Nachrichten aus der Chemie 2015, 63, 336-346

13) B. Esser
"Theoretical analysis of [5.5.6]cyclacenes: Electronic properties, strain energies and substituent effects"
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 7366-7372. DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00341E

12) M. Bovenkerk, B. Esser*
"Synthesis of Isoindoles By One-Electron Reductions of Dibenzo[1,4]diazocines"
Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2015, 775-785. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201403315

Book Chapters

  • F. Otteny, G. Desmaizieres, B. Esser, "Phenothiazine-based Redox Polymers for Energy Storage"
    in "Redox Polymers for Energy and Nanomedicine, Ed. N. Casado, D. Mecerreyes, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020.  DOI: 10.1039/9781788019743-00166


  • B. Esser, M. Kolek, P. Schmidt, F. Otteny, P. M. Bieker, M. Winter, "Elektrodenmaterial und Komposit-Elektroden auf Basis eines Polymers und Kohlenstoff" Patent Application No.: DE 10 2017 109 655; 05.05.2017.
  • T. M. Swager, B. Esser, J. M. Schnorr, "Ethylene Sensor" International Patent Application No.: PCT/US2013/031851; March 15, 2013.
  • T. M. Swager, K. A. Mirica, J. M. Azzarelli, J. G. Weis, J. M. Schnorr, B. Esser, "Methods for Deposition of Materials Including Mechanical Abrasion", WO 2013/180801, 05.12.2013.